tisdag 1 juli 2014

140701 - The Judgement

Today, my judment came. I would be 13 600 kronor, which is about $2000 in fines. I only were convicted for 2 of the 5 point I was accused on. Crime against the radiation saftey law and illegal environmental activities.

I was acquited from another point for crime against the radiation saftey law, illegal possesioning with chemical weapons and crime against the law about warmaterials.

The judgement (in swedish):
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B3-9YUgtqBa0RVJWWWpQRmIyczg/edit

fredag 20 juni 2014

140620 - The Court

In the 17'th of june I was in the court for my activities. The prosecutor wanted prison, but I'm almost sure that it would be conditionally and fines. My lawyer have done an extremley good job.

I was a little bit worried to be judged to do more forensic-psychiatry investigations. But the court said no to that.

The judgment will come on july the 1, 11:00 AM.

Then after publishing the judgment, this blog will turn in on another way. I am going to post my paintings instead of nuclear- and poison-informations.

onsdag 21 maj 2014

140521 - I am called to do a "forensic-psychiatric investigation".

Today a letter came from the correctional. The court has decided that I should implement a forensic-psychiatric investigation (I used Google translate, I don't know what it really calls). The june 2'th I'm going to Halmstad for an investigation.

I know there is something wrong with me, otherwise, I had not needed the 5 psychiatric pharmaceuticals that I take in high doses every day. I only know that I feel very bad if I quit with some of them. But I really don't know for what diagnosis... I have had about 30 diagnosis from when I was 16 years old, until now, I'm 34 on friday.

I'm thinking if I shouldn't take my medicines before the investigation, or they want me investigated as it is now, I'm feeling pretty good with my medicines? If I stop with my Haloperidol, I'm being very bad. For example confused, paranoid, some times I've been hearing voices and another of cuckoos... The Haloperidol is a really good pharmaceutical, I couln't live without it.

måndag 19 maj 2014

140519 - Is it possible to build a nuclear bomb from smoke-detectors?

Many have asked me if it is possible to build a nuclear bomb from smoke-detectors. Some media exaggerates my whole thing, and wrote "He was trying to building an atomic bomb from smoke-detectors"!

But the answer is, Yes! It is possible. But you will need about 323 076 920 377 smoke-detektors if I had calculated it right. A smoke-detektor contains about 0,26 µg Americium-241. And the critical mass for Am-241 is about 84 kilograms. This is the bare critical mass. Then it could be reduced to about "only" 23 kilograms, with some reflection shields and so.

So, start collecting! Over 323 billions of smoke-detectors!

It is also possible to build a nuclear bomb from the far more expensive Californium. 1998 was the price $56 per microgram of Californium-252. The critical mass for Cf-252 is 2,73 kilograms, then a critical mass would cost about $153 billions.

fredag 9 maj 2014

140509 - Another pre-trial against me canceled!

A pre-trial investigation on me has been canceled. It is the point; "Planing of murder" that has been canceled! There are no evidence of it! And of course I didn't plan to murder someone. I was just angry and drunk and wrote some threats on the Internet.


onsdag 2 april 2014

140402 - Pre-Trial canceled!

One of the charges against me has been canceled! I was accused to have ordered merchandises to another person. Of course I don't do something like that. But it has maybe been a friend of mine, who promised to "make a hell" for the person I dislike. I don't know who. But the text I had sent out was stored in my computer. So the police adopted that it was me.

fredag 7 mars 2014

140307 - Cobalt bomb

One (or several) cobalt bomb(s) is a possible doomsday-weapon. Its an ordinary nuclear weapon, with a admixture of Cobalt-59. Co-59 is not radioactive itself, but the nuclear device sends out a lot of neutrons wich is absorbed by the Cobalt, and turn it into Co-60 wich is very radioactive. It has a half-life of 5,7 years.

The reaction is;
Co-59 + n Co-60 (T½ = 5,7 years) β + Ni-60 + 2γ

The radioactive Cobalt-60 can be spread over large areas and contaminate the surrounding things, plants, humans and animals. As little as 1 gram Co-60 can contaminate one squarekilometer, so it will be uninhabetable. The Cobalt will waporize in a nuclear explosion, then condense to solid form, in form of dust.

The cobalt bomb occurs in at least two movies, the most famous is;
"Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb", the other is "On the Beach". It's also named in the James Bond-movie Goldfinger, where the bad guy has plans a little, but dirty bomb in Fort Knox to contaminate the Gold, with "Cobalt and Iodine".

Newly manufactured Co-60 has an activity at 10 Sv at a hypotetical detonation fallout. Lethal dose is in 30 minutes is about 5 Sv. It takes 142 years (27 half-lives) to the Cobalt (wich has decade to Nickel) to be safe.

There is no evidence that a country has manufactured cobalt bombs. In a hypotetical bomb, for examle, the tamper can be made of Co-59.

Source: Wikipedia

torsdag 6 mars 2014

140306 - How to build a thermonuclear bomb

A thermonuclear bomb is based on fusion of atoms. Light atoms is smashed together. The most common is Deuterium (heavy hydrogen) and Tritium (radioactive hydrogen). When they are fusioned it realese a massive energy.




















To start the fusion, it requires a lot of energy. A fission bomb is used as a "detonater". Here is a simple drawing of a fusion bomb.



































The upper part is the fission-device, which triggs the fusion-part. Theoretical a thermonuclear bomb can be as big as preferably. A common warhead is W88, used in the SLBM (Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile). It has a yield around 475 kt.

The biggest bomb ever detonated is "Tsar Bomba", which yield was about 50 Mt. Is was tested by the Soviet Union 1961. The biggest bomb tested by USA was Castle Bravo with a yield of 15 Mt. Se more att wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapon_yield The "Tsar Bomba" was first designed to be 100 Mt, if the outer shell was made of Uraniun, so it would be as fission-fusion-fission. But that had causted a large amount of radioactive fallout. So the shell was made of Lead.

ICBM (InterContinental Ballistic Missile) is plased in missile-silos or on a wehicle. Russia has Missiles in the megaton class, USA has Minuteman III, which has been dismantled to one warhead. But the submarines has up to 8 warheads in one missile. Se the list of weapons;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nuclear_weapons

Source: Wikipedia

The W88 warhead:


onsdag 5 mars 2014

140305 - How to build a fission bomb

Nuclear fission bombs are based on Uranium-235 or Plutonium-239. At least one test has also been tested with Uranium-233. It is also possible to build nuclear bombs with Neptunium or Americium. It is a pretty simply comstruction. But the types are different depending on using U-235 or Pu-239. A U-235 is the easiest to build.

Lets start with the U-235 device. You will need about 60 kg of almost pure U-235 (over 90 %). Natural Uranium consists of only about 0,72 % U-235, the rests is U-238, wich not is fissionable.

Here is a drawing of the Uranium bomb "Little Boy" which was dropped on Hiroshima.








































A Plutonium bomb is more complicated, it is built on a implosion of a Plutonium-sphere. But you will only be need of about 6 kg of Plutonium. Plutonium does not exist in the natur (exept for small traces), so it must be made in a reactor. The Plutonium is often alloyed with about 3 % Gallium.

Here is a drawing of the Plutonium bomb "Fat Man" which was dropped on Nagasaki.




The hard thing with this device is to get the explosive lenses to detonate exactly at the same time.

In both cases, the device is build to smash together a fissile material into a critical mass, with help of conventional explosives. Little Boy had a yield of about 15 kt, and Fat Man about 21 kt.

måndag 13 januari 2014

140109 - Arrested again!

For a couple of days ago, I was arrested again. But it has nothing to do with my earlier visits with the police. I was suspected for "Planing of murder"... Of cource i dont have a plan to kill someone, but I let my mind wandered away. And when I was drunk, I wrote about it on the Internet.

tisdag 17 september 2013

130917 - I would really be a physicists...

Since I was 13 years old I wanted to be a physicists! In the elementary school I got the highest grade in physics and chemistry. But then in high-school I had a big break-down. I got several depressions, and then some psychosis. But I've got a very good job in an industrial

When I went away from there, I was trying to read in some courses in Komvux. But I didn't make it. I wanted to be a hospital-physicists. Then I got the diagnosis Paranoid Schizophrenia... :-(

But now, when I'm sick-listed, I want to study mathematics and physic.Maybe I can on study on distance, because I can't handle groups of people...



torsdag 7 februari 2013

130207 - Acquitted from 2 of 3 charges against me!

Acquitted from 2 of 3 charges against me! Prosecution has been canceled against;
-Illegal possession of hazardous chemicals
-Before impersonation of a person

Still suspect for;
-Crime against the radiation safety law
 I'm still suspect for crime against the radiation saftey law. But today came a happy letter.  Illegal possession of hazardous chemicals, I had also had very poisonous chemicals such as ricin at home. And I had som police-uniforms. This was only 2 days before the terror in Norway. So, for a while I was suspected for terrorism.

torsdag 4 augusti 2011

110804 - Now I'm famous world wide...

Many, many news have notice me now. Thanks for all tips! I even was live-interview in BBC-television. I didn't thought I would get so famous... Please continue to comment if you find other articles :-)

Australia

News.com.au:
http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/swedish-man-detained-for-building-nuclear-reactor-in-kitchen/story-e6frfku0-1226107009015

The Australian:
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/breaking-news/swedish-man-detained-for-building-nuclear-reactor-in-kitchen/story-fn3dxity-1226107009015

ABC News:
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-08-05/swedish-kitchen-nuke-reactor/2825356


Belgium

7SUR7:
http://www.7sur7.be/7s7/fr/1504/Insolite/article/detail/1300397/2011/08/03/Il-bricolait-un-reacteur-nucleaire-dans-sa-cuisine.dhtml


Bosnia

bljesak.info:
http://bljesak.info/web/article.aspx?a=3c708b2f-73cb-41c2-9253-d1e85bddcf0b&c=3c3fcd98-f64c-48fc-a8de-6dbe470fafae


Brazil

ESTADAU:
http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,sueco-tenta-construir-reator-nuclear-na-cozinha-de-casa,754166,0.htm

Yahoo:
http://br.noticias.yahoo.com/sueco-tenta-construir-reator-nuclear-na-cozinha-casa-171533240.html

Info:
http://info.abril.com.br/noticias/ciencia/sueco-tenta-construir-reator-nuclear-em-casa-05082011-23.shl

FOLHA:
http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/ciencia/953876-sueco-e-preso-por-tentar-criar-fissao-nuclear-no-fogao-de-casa.shtml

Tecmundo:
http://tecmundo.com.br/12185-homem-e-preso-por-tentar-construir-um-reator-nuclear-em-casa.htm


Canada

Radio-Canada:
http://blogues.radio-canada.ca/surleweb/2011/08/04/un-bricoleur-de-reacteur-nucleaire-arrete-en-suede/


Czech Republic

IHNED.cz:
http://zpravy.ihned.cz/?p=013300_d&article[id]=52482080

IDNES.cz
http://zpravy.idnes.cz/sved-rozbijel-v-kuchyni-atom-chtel-si-sestrojit-jaderny-reaktor-p8q-/zahranicni.aspx?c=A110804_093718_zahranicni_ipl


Denmark

Politiken:
http://politiken.dk/udland/ECE1352449/svensker-anholdt-for-at-lave-kernereaktor-paa-sit-komfur/
http://politiken.dk/udland/ECE1352527/svensker-bag-radioaktivt-forsoeg-jeg-goer-det-aldrig-igen/?track=jplisterseneste

TV 2 Nyhederne:
http://nyhederne.tv2.dk/article.php/id-42307517:lavede-atomforsøg-i-køkkenet.html

Ingeniøren:
http://ing.dk/artikel/120958-svensk-a-kraft-amatoer-jeg-kogte-radioaktive-materialer-i-mit-koekken?utm_medium=email&utm_source=nyhedsbrev&utm_campaign=ingformiddag


Estonia

Postimees:
http://www.postimees.ee/517216/rootslane-uritas-ehitada-koju-tuumareaktorit/


Finland

Helsingin Sanomat:
http://www.hs.fi/ulkomaat/artikkeli/Ruotsalaismies+yritti+rakentaa+ydinreaktorin+kotonaan/1135268227144


France

Metro:
http://www.metrofrance.com/info/il-fabriquait-un-reacteur-nucleaire-dans-sa-cuisine/mkhc!zKVoWEJaLZPes/

Clubic:
http://www.clubic.com/insolite/actualite-439030-insolite-fabriquait-reacteur-nucleaire-cuisine.html


Germany


Der Spiegel:
http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/justiz/0,1518,778276,00.html
http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/technik/0,1518,778625,00.html

BZ:
http://www.bz-berlin.de/aktuell/welt/schwede-baut-atomreaktor-in-der-kueche-article1240916.html

Tagesschau:
http://www.tagesschau.de/schlusslicht/atomkraftwerk142.html

Der Tagesspiegel:
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/weltspiegel/schwede-baut-atomreaktor-in-der-kueche-/4464948.html


Hungary

Index:
http://index.hu/bulvar/2011/08/03/a_konyhaban_akart_atomot_hasitani_letartoztattak/


Ireland

Herald.ie:
http://www.herald.ie/news/atom-smashing-as-a-kitchen-hobby-2839414.html

Independent.ie:
http://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/man-arrested-for-trying-to-split-the-atom-in-his-kitchen-2840183.html

The Journal:
http://www.thejournal.ie/swedish-man-arrested-over-attempts-to-split-atoms-at-home-193068-Aug2011/


Israel

ynet.co.il:
http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4104378,00.html


Italy

NEXTMOON:
http://www.nextmoon.net/2011/08/05/arrestato-dopo-aver-provato-a-costruire-un-reattore-nucleare-in-casa/


Japan

Slashdot:
http://slashdot.jp/hardware/article.pl?sid=11/08/04/0221254


Korea

http://www.etnews.com/201108030156

Korea Herald:
http://www.koreaherald.com/national/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20110805000439


Latvia

TVNET:
http://www.tvnet.lv/zinas/arvalstis/386911-policija_aiztur_zviedru_kurs_virtuve_buve_kodolreaktoru

Lebanon


naharnet:
http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/12064-swede-tried-to-build-kitchen-nuke-reactor-just-for-fun



Lithuana

DELFI:
http://www.delfi.lt/news/daily/world/uz-bandyma-namu-virtuveje-suskaldyti-atoma-sulaikytas-svedas.d?id=48251613

Lietuvos rytas:
http://www.lrytas.lt/-13124561001312403907-%C5%A1vedas-sulaikytas-u%C5%BE-m%C4%97ginim%C4%85-pasigaminti-branduolin%C4%AF-reaktori%C5%B3-savo-virtuv%C4%97je.htm

15min.lt:
http://www.15min.lt/naujiena/aktualu/pasaulis/svedas-savo-namu-virtuveje-gamino-branduolini-reaktoriu-57-163230

Balsas.lt:
http://www.balsas.lt/naujiena/549508/svedas-savo-virtuveje-norejo-pasigaminti-branduolini-reaktoriu


Malaysia


The Star:
http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/8/4/worldupdates/2011-08-04T201559Z_01_NOOTR_RTRMDNC_0_-586226-1&sec=Worldupdates


Mexico

Milenio:
http://www.milenio.com/cdb/doc/noticias2011/4e3cf57468ec28eca1f393654d823310


Netherlands

foknieuws:
http://frontpage.fok.nl/nieuws/456701/1/1/50/man-bouwt-kernreactor-in-eigen-keuken.html

POWNED:
http://www.powned.tv/nieuws/tech/2011/08/man_splitst_atomen_in_keuken.html

It Nijs:
http://itnijs.nl/2011/08/sweed-bout-miny-kearnsintrale-yn-e-koken/

RTLNIEUWS:
http://www.rtl.nl/%28/actueel/rtlnieuws/opmerkelijk/%29/components/actueel/rtlnieuws/2011/08_augustus/04/opmerkelijk/Zweed_wilde_kernreactie_in_zijn_keuken.xml

Norway
Aftenposten:
http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/uriks/article4189831.ece


Poland

Supermózg:
http://supermozg.gazeta.pl/supermozg/1,91629,10064650,Szwed_probowal_rozszczepic_atom____w_kuchni.html


Portugal

Journal de Notícias:
http://www.jn.pt/PaginaInicial/Mundo/Interior.aspx?content_id=1945235


Qatar

Qatar Living:
http://www.qatarliving.net/node/2006710


Romania

HotNews:
http://www.hotnews.ro/stiri-international-9665270-suedez-fost-arestat-dupa-incercat-construiasca-reactor-nuclear-bucataria-locuintei-sale.htm


Russia

http://www.gazeta.ru/news/blogs/2011/08/02/n_1949909.shtml

http://www.fontanka.ru/2011/08/02/147/

Radiomayak:
http://www.radiomayak.ru/doc.html?id=274380


Switzerland

Tribune de Genéve:
http://www.tdg.ch/actu/monde/suede-essayait-fractionner-atomes-cuisine-2011-08-03


Slovenia

24UR.com:
http://24ur.com/novice/svet/jedrski-reaktor-kar-v-kuhinji.html


South Africa

Mail&Guardian:
http://mg.co.za/article/2011-08-04-swedes-dreams-are-made-of-this-er-uranium


Sweden

Helsingbors Dagblad:
http://hd.se/angelholm/2011/08/01/forsokte-bygga-karnreaktor-i/
http://hd.se/angelholm/2011/08/03/stort-intresse-for-reaktorbygge/

Sydsvenskan:
http://www.sydsvenskan.se/sverige/article1520502/Forsokte-bygga-karnreaktor-i-sin-lagenhet.html

Skånskan:
http://www.skanskan.se/article/20110801/NYHETER/110809976/1108/-/tankte-bygga-karnreaktor-i-koket

Dagens Nyheter:
http://www.dn.se/nyheter/sverige/ville-bygga-karnreaktor-hemma-i-lagenheten

Göteborgsposten:
http://www.gp.se/nyheter/sverige/1.688578-tankte-bygga-karnreaktor-i-koket

Feber:
http://feber.se/pryl/art/218437/man_frskte_bygga_krnreaktor_i_/

Norra Skåne:
http://www.nsk.se/article/20110801/NYHETER/110809976/1163/-/tankte-bygga-karnreaktor-i-koket

Sveriges Television:
http://svt.se/2.22620/1.2492717/tankte_bygga_karnreaktor_i_koket

Expressen:
http://kvp.expressen.se/nyheter/1.2515723/31-aring-greps-for-bygge-av-karnreaktor-i-koket

TV 4:
http://www.nyheterna.se/1.2224692/2011/08/01/tankte_bygga_karnreaktor_i_koket

Nyheter24:
http://nyheter24.se/nyheter/inrikes/596794-byggde-karnreaktor-stoppades-av-polis

The Local:
http://www.thelocal.se/35306/20110802/

Sveriges Television:
http://svt.se/2.22620/1.2494908/skaning_med_hemmabyggd_karnreaktor_blev_varldskand

The Swedish Wire:
http://www.swedishwire.com/science/10855-swede-tried-to-build-nuke-reactor-in-kitchen


Turkey

HABERTURK
http://www.haberturk.com/dunya/haber/654596-ev-tipi-nukleer-reaktor

Haber7:
http://www.haber7.com/haber/20110804/Evinde-atomu-parcalamaya-calisti.php

Haber Pan:
http://www.haberpan.com/haber/evinde-atomu-parcalamaya-calisti/

Skyturk:
http://www.skyturk.net/haber/evinde-atom-reaktoru-kurmaya-kalkmis-dunya-12916.html

Techno-Labs:
http://www.techno-labs.com/1/26948/1/mutfakta-atom-parcalamaya-calisti.html


Ukraine

http://podrobnosti.ua/technologies/2011/08/04/784201.html


Taiwan


http://www2.cna.com.tw/ShowNews/WebNews_Detail.aspx?Type=FirstNews&ID=201108040090


USA & United Kingdom

Fox News:
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/08/02/swedish-man-builds-nuclear-reactor-in-his-kitchen/?test=faces

Gizmodo:
http://gizmodo.com/5826876/man-gets-arrested-before-he-can-pull-off-his-kitchen-nuclear-reactor

My Fox New York:
http://www.myfoxny.com/dpp/news/swedish-man-detained-for-building-nuclear-reactor-in-kitchen-20110802-ncx

Wired.co.uk:
http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-08/03/sweden-nuclear-reactor

Softpedia:
http://news.softpedia.com/news/Man-Builds-Nuclear-Reactor-in-Own-Home-214907.shtml

Yahoo News:
http://news.yahoo.com/swedish-man-caught-trying-split-atoms-home-153341057.html

The Raw Story:
http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2011/08/03/swede-arrested-for-building-nuclear-reactor-in-his-kitchen/

Scallywag & Vagabond:
http://scallywagandvagabond.com/2011/08/swedish-man-wonders-if-splitting-atoms-at-home-is-legal-gets-arrested/

Slashdot:
http://hardware.slashdot.org/story/11/08/02/1242234/Swede-Arrested-For-Building-Nuclear-Reactor

Business Insider:
http://www.businessinsider.com/sweden-nuclear-reactor-angelholm-2011-8

NBC:
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44003250/ns/technology_and_science-science/

USA Today:
http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2011/08/swedish-man-arrested-for-kitchen-nuclear-reactor/1

Huffington Post:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/03/richard-handl-nuclear-reactor-home_n_917585.html

The Cosmic News:
http://www.cosmostv.org/2011/08/swedish-man-richard-handl-caught-trying.html

The Guardian:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/03/atom-splitting-attempt-swedish-kitchen

Science News Daily:
http://www.sciencenewsdaily.org/internet-news/cluster108635190/

Brainicane:
http://www.brainicane.com/tag/richard-handl/

Kansas City:
http://www.kansascity.com/2011/08/03/3054329/swedish-man-caught-trying-to-split.html

Washington Post:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/swedish-man-arrested-after-trying-to-split-atoms-in-his-kitchen-says-it-was-only-a-hobby/2011/08/03/gIQAEtD0rI_story.html?wprss=rss_world

New York Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2011/08/03/world/europe/AP-EU-Sweden-Nuclear.html?_r=2&scp=6&sq=sweden&st=nyt

BBC (with voice inteview):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14406766

The Daily Telegraph:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/8679630/Swedish-man-arrested-after-trying-to-split-atoms-in-his-kitchen.html

NPR:
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/08/04/138985690/swedish-man-arrested-for-trying-to-build-nuclear-reactor-in-his-kitchen?sc=fb&cc=fp

The Florida News Journal:
http://thefloridanewsjournal.com/2011/08/04/man-arrested-for-attempting-nuclear-fission-on-his-stove/

fredag 22 juli 2011

110722 - Project canceled!

Wednesday, I was arrested and sent to jail, when the police and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authory searched my apartment. They took all my radioactive stuff, but I was released after a hearing. But I am still suspekt for crime against the radiation safety law.

I was ordered by the police to get out of the building with my hands up, then three men came, with geiger-counters and searched me. Then I was placed in a police-car, when Radiation Safety Authory went into my apartment with very advanced measure-tools. 

So, my project is canceled!

lördag 21 maj 2011

110521 - "The Meltdown"

A meltdown on my cooker!!!

No, it not so dangerous. But I tried to cook Americium, Radium and Beryllium in 96% sulphuric-acid, to easier get them blended. But the whole thing exploded upp in the air...

Of cource I thrown away my pills at the left side, and I didn't drink the juice-syryp in the right.

fredag 20 maj 2011

110520 - I'm Not The First...


In this video you'll se exactly how the principe works. It is not me in the video, I don't know who they are... The first who did this experiment was a boyscout, named David Hahn, also called "The Nuclear Boyscout" or "The Radioactive Boyscout". There are many pages about him:

http://www.dangerouslaboratories.org/radscout.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hahn

Yes, I know... He doesn't look very great... 

110520 - Uranium

Uranium is the most common fuel in nuclear reactors. Naturaly occuring Uranium consist of about 99,2% U-238 and 0,7% of U-235. It is the U-235 which is intressting. Because it is fissible. Uranium has to be enriched to be used in the most coherences. Under 20% U-235 it is called LEU (Low Enriched Uranium), which is used in the most nucler reactors. HEU stand for High Enriched Uranium, which is used in some atomic-submarines and in nuclear weapons.

But in this project we are not going to use U-235. Naturally Uranium (with 0,7% U-235), can be used directly in heavy water-reactors. But we are going our from U-238, depleted Uranium.

If a neutron is catched up in the U-238 nuclear, it transmute to U-239 with T½ = 22,3 min, which than decays into Pa-239, and the half-life of that is about 27 days. Then the Protactinium decays to the fissible isotope Plutonium-239.

Then the isotope of Uranium, U-233 is fissible, and that is the type we use with the Thorium-project.

An Uranium glass-marble I have. The green color comes from Uranium.

onsdag 18 maj 2011

110519 - Thorium

Thoriumoxide in a gas lantern mantle.

Thorium is a naturally occuring element, and can be used as fuel in a nuclear breed-reactor. The isotope Th-232 is the most common. It is found as thoriumoxide in gas lantern mantels, or in weld-electrodes, which here in Sweden can be bought at Biltema.

When a neutron, from your neutron-gun hits the Th-232, it turns into Th-233, which decays to Pa-233, and then to U-233. U-233 is fissible.

Another picture at the mantle.

måndag 16 maj 2011

110517 - Aluminum, Beryllium and neutron-radiation

Americium and Radium mixed with Beryllium.

To transmute an atom, for example Th-232 to Th-233, we need some neutrons. It is here the α-emitter come into the picture. To get neutrons, just mix the α-emitter with Aluminum or Beryllium. Beryllium is the best, but it is pretty toxic, and Aluminum is easier to get.

 An ampoule with Beryllium.

Why we need so much α-radiation is because of 1 MBq, there is only about 30 neutrons released (with Beryllium). The neutrons have to slows down with a moderator, which I will write about later. Neutron-radiation is ionizing, and the quality-factor depends on its energy;

< 10 keV = 5
10 keV - 100 keV = 10
100 keV - 2 MeV = 20
2 MeV - 20 MeV = 10
> 20 MeV = 5

As you see, it's more effective when the energy is in the middle. Neutrons can be hard to control, Because Lead or concrete won't stop it. But some other materials do, such as Cadmium, Boron, paraffin or graphite.

A neutron-gun. An old medicin-can, with a glass-pipe in the middle. Covered around with Lead.

110516 - Radium

Radium from clock-fingers.

Radium is much more effective than Americium. Radium was used into around 1950, in clocks and watches, then it was withdrawn because it was too dangerous. The isotope Ra-226, an α-emitter, with a half-life of 1 599 years. It is hightly toxic and decays into Radon.

It was used to paint fingers and faces on the clocks, to get it self-lightning. But there are many clocks still. I bought a lot of clock-fingers on eBay. It's not so expensive, about $ 12 for 5 pieces.

110516 - Smoke-detectors and Americium

Americium from smoke-detectors, of course not the whole piece is Americium.

The easiest way to get some radioactive material to start with, is to take apart smoke-detectors. Smoke-detectors is now more replaced with the optical variant, but in the ionizing type there is a small amount of Americium (Am-241), an α-emitter with a half-life of 432 years.

The Americium-piece lie on about 37 kBq, 37 000 bequerel. The background-radiation is on about 35 Bq. But for my project you need much, much more. About 100 of smoke-detectors. But later I will try another material, instead of getting so many smoke-detectors

söndag 15 maj 2011

110515 - Trithium


This glowing keychain is an ampoule filled with Trithium, radioactive Hydrogen. It has nothing to do with the main reactor. But it is funny to know, that Trithium is one of the main component in hydrogen-bombs. Regular Hydrogen (H) nuclear, consists only of a proton, then there are heavy Hydrogen, Deuterium (D), that consists of a proton and a neutron, and there is Trithium (T), which consists of one proton and two neutrons.

It emitts β-radiation and have a T½ of 12,32 years. In fusion-bombs (hydrogen-bombs), Trithium is fusioned with Deuterium, and releases a high amount of energy. Also there is a big research to develope fusion-reactors.

110515 - The geiger-counter

It is always good to have a geiger-counter, a tool to measure ionizing radiation. I have a geiger-counter from Imagesco:


http://www.imagesco.com/geiger/digital-geiger-counter.html

But I think there is something wrong with it, because some times it wouldn't react on high radiation. So I plan to buy this one, a gamma-scout:


http://www.gammascout.com/
But due the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the company has gain too many orders, so it would take time to get one.

Once I borrowed a very, very expensive geiger-counter from a hospital. It was very accurate, but it costed about $ 12 000.

Radiation can be measured in many ways. Here is a simple explanation of the different units.


Decaying

Bequerel
One decay per second is 1 Bq, it is the standard unit for decaying.

Curie
Curie is an older unit. 1 Ci is 3,7 x 10^10 Bq, which be equivalent to the decay of 1 gram of Radium.


Exposition

C/Kg
Coulomb per kilo. Coulomb is a measure of electrical charge. 1 coulomb is the charge of by one second passes a conductor with the current of 1 ampere.

Roentgen
Roentgen (R) is an older unit, which be equivalent to 0,000258 C/Kg


Absorbed dose

Gray
1 Gy is one joule per kilo. One joule is equivalent to move one coulomb, one meter with one volt.

Rad
Rad is an older unit, 1 rad is 0,01 Gy.


Equivalent dose

Sievert
1 Sv is absorbed dose (in gray) multiplied with the quality-factor. The qulity factor is, for;
α-radiation = 20
β-radiation = 1
γ-radiation = 1
n-radiation = 5-20 depending on the energy

Rem
Rem is an older unit, 1 rem is equivalent ro 0,01 Sv.

lördag 14 maj 2011

110514 - Introduction

My project is to build a working nuclear reactor. Not to gain electricity, just for fun and to see if it's possible to split atoms at home. I would be a breeder reactor, and my primary goals is to carry out two main reactions, which is;

Th-232 + n →Th-233 (T½ = 22,3 min) →
β → Pa-233 (T½ = 27 days) → β → U-233
U-233 has a T
½ of 1 590 000 years, and is fissionable.

And the second reaction;

U-238 + n
→U-239 (T½ = 23,45 min) → β → Np-239 (T½ = 2,356 days) → β → Pu-239
Pu-239 has a T½ of 24 110 years, and is fissionable.


Some basic nuclear-physics

Th = Thorium, a naturally occuring element, atomic-number 90, and it is a weak α-emitter (the Th-232).
Pa = Protactinium, atomic-number 91.
U = Uranium, is also a naturally occuring element. Atomic-number 92. The most common isotope is U-238, wich is a weak α-emitter.
Np = Neptunium, atomic-number 93
Pu = Plutonium, atomic-number 94, the isotope Pu-239 is fissionable, and extremly poisonous.

With fissionable isotopes, you can also build nuclear weapons. But that needs huge amounts of the material, 6 kg of Pu-239 or 50 kg of U-235. In this experiment, we only will be able to produce less than a gram.

T½ stands for half-life. Every radioactive isotope has a half-life, and with thats means the time it takes for half of the atoms in the piece to decomposition to another isotope, with emitting their radiation. It can be between nanoseconds to billions of years.

Many of the substances we are going to handle is radioactive. And you should be careful with radiation. The radiation-types are;

α-radiation, contanis of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, it reaches some centimeters in air, and does not penetrate the skin. But it is very dangerous to ingest or inhale it! An α-decaying atom loses 2 in atomic-number, and 4 in total mass.


β-radiation
endures of electrons and reaches some meters in air or is stopped by a glass or plate. A β-dacaying atom raises the atomic-number with 1, but the total mass is unchanged (a neutron is transforming into a proton).

γ-radiation is high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (photons), it reaches several meters but can be stopped by a thick concrete wall. γ-radiation occurs more or less in every decays.